Friday, 3 January 2014

Y-DNA haplogroup I - most common among Serbs

Serbian Women

Haplogroup I1 I2a and together account for almost 45 percent of all Serbs who have so far done Y-DNA.

Also the frequency of the Rh factor in the Serbian population (84% Rh+ and 16% Rh-). That is higher than average with Rh-.

GENERAL NOTES:   Haplogroup I among Serbs is the single most common haplogroup. On the basis of several genetic tests on the Serbian population we have found information about the different variants of haplogroup I represented in Serbs in the percentage of 40-45%.Haplogroup I, which grew out of the broader haplotype IJ. In this sense, the closest to haplogroup I is the J haplogroup. Haplogroup I is a key marker of Paleolithic man in Europe , ie. first humans (Neanderthals) who went to Europe a few tens of thousands of years ago. Having survived several ice ages, haplogroup I is the only haplogroup is present almost exclusively on the European continent (not counting the European colonists in the New World). It is assumed that this haplogroup has 15% of Europe's population today.

ORIGIN AND MIGRATION : Haplogroup I originated in Europe 30,000 years ago. The spread of Neanderthals arrived in Europe from the Middle East and the genetically very close haplogroup J remained in the east. Haplotype IJ is found in a small percentage of Iran. Haplogroup I when in Europe has experienced a number of dramatic reductions in population due to attacks from Cro-Magnons. Presumably, the migration of haplogroup I went from the bottom to the top Danube and the northern slopes of the Alps, across the Rhine River in southwestern France and Iberia. With these basic territories which are also centres of Paleolithic art in Europe, the descendants of the Neanderthal displacements to the north of Europe following the melting of the ice. Today, the most typical areas I haplogroup in Europe, Scandinavia, the former Yugoslavia, Western Ukraine and Sardinia .
Serbian Swimmer

Subgroups and distribution:
I *
It is very rare, almost non-existent, a variant of haplogroup I, which is either I1 or I2.
I1 M253
Northern European variant of haplogroup I , present in 40% of Swedes, Danes, Norwegians and Icelanders 30-35%, 28% of Finns, the English 15%, northern Germans and the Dutch 18%, Estonia 15%. For Serbs, this haplogroup is represented by 7%.
I2 M438
This variant of haplogroup I is less present in the north of Europe, but it is widespread in Central Europe, Ukraine, the Balkans, Sardinia, while in Western Europe a very diversified but small in number. The highest percentage of these haplogroups are present among the Serbs, Croats and Bosnian Muslims from 40-50%. Sardinia is the second hotspot for these haplogroups with 40%.
Ancients: With haplogroup I is usually tied to Neanderthal racial type in their various forms present today in northern and western Europe, characterized by high growth, large head, the greater the proportion of body weight than is the case with the Mediterranean race. Similar racial characteristics also appear in the mountainous regions of Herzegovina and Montenegro, where there is also increased presence of haplogroup I. This racial type belonged to the oldest population of Central Europe. Members of haplogroup I are probably in the past talked a variant language, which is likely to saved in today's Basque language. Basque language has a further connection with other languages ​​(Chechen and Dagestan) which belonged to the extinct Huro-urartskoj group of languages, and are prevailing in this haplogroup and related haplogroup J. Members of these haplogroups in scientific papers are usually referred to as Paleo, Neanderthal and the like.
M170 Haplogroup I is found in many old archaeological sites, mainly in Europe:
1      The natives of the Canary Islands , the period 0-500 AD before the arrival of Europeans, I M170 haplogroup is found in the proportion of 6% of the analyzed skeleton
2      Late Roman Basques , Aldajeta cemetery, Spain, 6-7 century AD, found 4 examples and M170
Haplogroup I M170 is divided into two main branches: M253 I1 and I2 M438 which is because of the wide distribution and high diversity.
Haplogroup I1 M253
GENERAL NOTES: Although very old, in the sense of separation from the rest of haplogroup I, all current members of haplogroup I1 M253 descended from an ancestor who lived some 5,000 years ago, probably in the north of Europe, which means that it has evolved from a small community of people who are alone many years fighting for survival and only a small number of them survived and left descendants to this day.This is typical Scandinavian haplogroup that participated in the ethnogenesis of the Germanic peoples, and that they then spread their migration. Haplogroup I1 of the Serbs is represented as a percentage of about 7%.
ORIGIN AND MIGRATION: Haplogroup I1 M253 is a branch of haplogroup I that the other branches of haplogroup I separated from 20-25000 years ago. It is quite likely that the mentioned haplogroups in some way are isolated territory in the north of Europe (somewhere in the territory of today's Germany) compared to the other subgroups. This isolation could be associated with the last glacial maximum about 20,000 years BC.
Subgroups and distribution:
I1A1 M227
This subgroup has a center in East Prussia, Pomerania, northern Poland as a percentage of about 10%. Has a focus in Eastern Europe and it is possible that is associated with the Gothic migration.
I1a2 22
This is a typical Nordic subgroup that has been probably in Jutland, south of Denmark and their deep northern Germany. From there, the Germanic peoples spread in Scandinavia, Finland, the British Isles, and one variant of this mutation is present Serbs as a percentage of about 4-5%. It is quite likely that this variant of haplogroup I1 arrived in Serbia through the Norman colonies in southern Italy. This is the most typical Viking haplogroup .
I1a Z58
Variety of haplogroup I1 is most of the British Isles, the Benelux countries.
I1a 63
This variant of haplogroup I1 is slightly wider territorial distribution and can be found in Poland, the UK, and in Spain . There is also the Serbs and has a rod Macura from Dalmatia, which is further derived from Montenegro. Macure the aging population in Vasojevici probably long poslovenjeno Germanic tribe from the area of Poland Masuria where it is still located their genetic relatives. It is difficult to determine which would Germanic tribe could be the bearer of this haplogroup.
Ancient peoples: Haplogroup I1 is still commonly associated with the Vikings and the Normans, but it is certain that the very early part of the ethnogenesis of the Germans, especially the Scandinavian branch of the Germanic peoples. In this sense, one part I1 haplogroup is present in Eastern Europe and the Balkans, most of the Goths migration. In the period before the creation of the Germanic peoples, several archaeological cultures that can be closely associated with this haplogroup, which are primarily Funelbeaker culture of Scandinavia and northern Europe 3500 BC. In England, Ireland and Scotland over the haplogroup I1 can monitor areas of Viking settlement.
OLD DNA:  Haplogroup I1 has so far been found at two archaeological sites:
1 Late Roman Roman cemetery in Erding in Upper Bavaria at the turn of the 4th of 5th century AD (Roman province Raetia), among others found two persons belonging to haplogroup I1
2 Sweden graves of 13 century, the founder of Stockholm and the Swedish king Birger Magnusson and his son belonged to haplogroup I1
There are many celebrities who belonged to haplogroup I1. To mention a few:
1 Birger Jarl or Birger Magnusson, King of Sweden from the 13th century
2 Alexander Hamilton (1757-1804) is one of America's founding fathers, writer, lawyer and economist, the first keeper of the Treasury of the United States
3 Leo Tolstoy (1828-1910), the famous Russian writer
Ken Nordtvedt, American physicist and one of the best known genetic genealogist today
Haplogroup I2 M438
GENERAL NOTES: Haplogroup I2 is the most common variant of haplogroup I. Present in the vast area from Eastern Europe to the western Mediterranean , includes a large number of diverse populations of Europe, so it has participated in the ethnogenesis of the Germanic, Slavic, and Celtic peoples. Haplogroup I2 has left its mark in the Paleolithic Cave art, Neolithic and Bronze Age.
ORIGIN AND MIGRATION: Haplogroup I2 is separated from the rest of haplogroup 22,000 years ago, probably in what is now the Danube basin. Further migration of haplogroup I2 went toward top Danube River, on the north side of the Alps, where he was across the Rhine, a group I2 moved to southwestern France and northern Spain.From the area will be spread throughout the western Mediterranean, Sardinia and Atlantic Europe. Another variant of haplogroup I2 dwelt longer period in the area of the Danube , in the area of Bavaria, Bohemia, Moravia, Austria. From there they will be somewhat suppressed by Neolithic farmers from the Middle East (haplogroups G2a) in the period 8000 years ago, and members of haplogroup I2 migrate and to the east and to the north of Europe. The greatest diversity of haplotypes I2 in Europe is the region of the upper Danube, so the assumption that it was their base of territory in Europe was for a longer period.
Subgroups and distribution:
I2a L460
I2a1 P37.2
This is one of the most frequent haplogroup variant I2a. Represented in Western, Central, Eastern Europe, the Balkans and the western Mediterranean. Details will be described in its subgroup. This is the main haplogroup of Paleolithic humans in Europe. Cave paintings at Altamira and Lascaux, and the Central European Venus figurines such as those in Willendorf.
I2a1a M26
This variant of haplogroup I2 is often called the Sardinian branch (mainly due to the high percentage of presence in Sardinia, about 40%), although this variant of haplogroup I2a to Sardinia probably came from southern France and Spain, where it has remained since the Paleolithic. Thanks to a report from the sites of megalithic culture in France, it is clear that this variant was the main carrier of indigenous cultures in Western Europe, and thus one of the British Isles, including Stonehenge . This variant haplogroups I2 Baska present in a percentage of about 10%. The highlands of central Sardinia Nuoro known as the most typical area of this variant in Europe today. Paleo Sardinian language that influenced the formation of modern Sardinian language and was native European language, probably close to the Basque was the original language of this haplogroup.
I2 a1b M423
For Serbs, the most interesting variant of haplogroup I. It's hard to tell where it originated, but it is certainly somewhere in the north, possibly in the upper reaches of the Danube, in present-day Austria, Bavaria and the Czech Republic. These are presumably were Paleolithic natives of the region who were held after several invasion of immigrants from East and West. It is interesting that there are three different versions of this haplogroup in the fairly remote territory (Lutovac).
I2a1 c L233
This branch of haplogroup I2a P37.2 named the Western and is present almost exclusively in Western Europe , Northern France and the British Isles.
I2A2 214
This haplogroup is now most frequent in the north-western Europe, the Benelux countries and northern and central Germany. It is a megalith indigenous population of that part of Europe which later participated in the ethnogenesis of the Celts and Germans . Presented in two main variants:
I2a2a M223 (Previously known as I2b1)
This subgroup represents almost all I2a2 haplogroup . It is present in northern Germany and the Netherlands with Flanders in the percentage of 15% as well as in Scotland, Eastern England, Denmark and northern France with 10%. There are several varieties:
Old Bristish M284 is present almost exclusively in the UK where it was created.
Central European 701 , spread across Europe, from Spain to Ukraine, Germany. It is possible that the Goths or another Germanic tribe.
Viking 161 is present in Denmark, Normandy, England, Sicily.
Germanic 1229 is present in northern Germany, Scotland, England and in Ireland.
I2a2 38
Presence today is limited to the Rhineland and the Harz mountains in Germany, the Benelux countries and the UK. This haplogroup is found on old bones in a cave in central Germany, Liechtenstein belonging Urnfild culture.
I2b L415
Very long separate branch of haplogroup I2. Paleolithic man in the region of the Adriatic Sea and Italy. Very few groups.
I2C L596
It is a very old branch of haplogroup I2, but only recently SNP defined. This is the only branch of haplogroup I, which is located in the Caucasus and Asia Minor . Within it, there are several long-separated branches. Branches are typical of the Caucasian area, Armenia and Iran, as well as branches that are characteristic of Greek and Western Europe, from which most recognizable subgroup of haplogroup I2c is of the Scottish Clan Wallace, and Ashkenazi Jewish cluster in Ukraine. In view of the eastern distribution of this subgroup as well as the distant separation from the rest of the tree I2 could be assumed that it was part of the so-called migration. Eastern Gravett on areas north of the Black Sea, where the Paleolithic hunter-gatherers of Europe in search of hunting grounds migrated to towards the eastern steppes and on to the Caucasus.Otherwise, this haplogroup is scarce, like haplogroup I2b.
Ancient peoples: Haplogroup I2 is represented by a number of different, mutually closely related branches. Some branches of haplogroup I2 can be linked to an old peoples.
Haplogroup I2a1b M423 147.2 which is usually referred to as Dinaric is a subgroup of haplogroup I, which participated in the ethnogenesis of the Slavs along with R1a haplogroup which belonged to the Venedi and Anti people (Cro-Magnons). It is haplogroup I2 M423 L147.2 dominated by one group of Slavs in ancient sources mention the name Sclavinis and is mainly involved in the colonization of the Balkans.
Haplogroup I2a 1a M26 is one of the older variants of haplogroup I and was found in a lot of Neolithic archaeological sites in Western Europe. Today it is most common in Sardinia, the population of the central mountainous area of the island. There is a small percentage with the Basques, Spaniards, Frenchmen. This population was directly descended from Paleolithic centers of Western Europe (Lasko, Altamira).
Haplogroup I2a2 M223 is another variant of the Germanic haplogroup I. It clearly reflects the directions of migration of Germanic tribes and nations .
Haplogroup I2 is found on the following archaeological sites:
  1. Neolithic megalith site in France La Pierre Fritte near Paris. Found two skeletons I2a M26, megalithic culture of Western Europe in 2700 BC
  2. Neolithic site Treilles in southern France , 3000 BC, found I2a P37.2,
  3. Lichtenstein cave, Saxony, Germany, Urnfield culture of the Bronze Age in 1000 BC, four I2 L38 haplotypes
  1. Nikola Tesla A Serbian-American scientist most famous for his work on alternating current, the induction motor, the Tesla coil, etc. I2a-Din-S L147.2+
  2. Douglas-Hamilton This line includes the Dukes of Hamilton and Earls of Selkirk. Their most famous representative is perhaps Douglas Douglas-Hamilton, 14th Duke of Hamilton, a Scottish nobleman famous for becoming the chief pilot of the first flight over Mount Everest, as well as for his later involvement with Rudolf Hess. Some other famous Douglas-Hamiltons include mummification and art enthusiast Alexander Hamilton, 10th Duke of Hamilton and the politically influential James Hamilton, 4th Duke of Hamilton. Furthermore, the family claims descent from the Earls of Angus, although some competing claimants have tested differently. A relative of this family tested at the Hamilton Surname DNA ProjectI2-M223-Isles-E L1193+
  3. Douglass Earls of Angus I2a2a
  4. Royal House of Stuart The House of Stewart (latterly gallicised to Stuart), is a European royal house. Founded by Robert II of Scotland, the Stewarts first became monarchs of the Kingdom of Scotland during the late 14th century, and subsequently held the position of the Kings of England, Ireland, and Great Britain. I2a2a
  5. Sir Henry Clinton 1730-1795, British general, one of the major participants in the war for American independence from the British side, belonged to haplogroup I2a2 M223 L1193
  6. Davy Crockett 1786-1836, American politician and adventurer with a Wild West belonged to haplogroup M223 Z76
  7. William Wallace (? -1305), a Scottish fighter for independence as a member of Clan Wallace probably belonged to haplogroup I2c L59
  8. Zivojin Misic 1855-1921, a famous Serbian military commander in the First World War, as a descendant of the tribe LUTOVAC belonged to haplogroup I2a M423 Dinaric South
  9. Serdar Janko Vukotic , 1866-1927 Serbian and Montenegrin military leader with Čevo Montenegro belonged to haplogroup I2a M423 Dinaric South
  10. Peko Dapčević , 1913-1999, partisan general in World War II belonged to haplogroup I2a M423 Dinaric South
  11. Oliver Winchester from 1810 to 1880, an American businessman and politician, manufacturer of the famous Winchester rifle belonged to haplogroup I2a M423 L161 Isles


- Tau Tia L Douglass

All Research © Copyright Tau Tia L Douglass 2012-2015 All Rights Reserved

1 comment:

  1. The Serbian swimmer doesn't look like a neanderthal to me. Like most red haired ladies she is drop dead gorgeous.